Tuesday, July 31, 2012


In Kerala the Classic art forms which are  having origin  in the state are "Kathakali,
Krishnanattam, Koodiyattam, Mohiniyattam ,Thidampu Nritham, Chakyarkoothu, Arjuna Nritham  Ottan Thullal etc  and Thiruvathira Kali(Kai kottikali), Margam Kali, Oppana etc  also possess a classical touch.
The visual art forms prevailing in Kerala in the category of Folklore group are
of many varieties and types.These are all having a long tradition and still follows the original procedures and cults.But the popularity of many of the
folklore art forms have diminished because of modern  urban life style .Different  communities in the society solely performed many of the art forms and the
new generations are not very much interested in them.But Government and many other
Padayani "Kolam"
enthusiastic social societies interested in the traditional culture are giving all kinds of encouragement and help
for the artistes.
The ancient visual art forms were usually intended for religious purposes.They
were having two uses either for propitiating Gods and or for safeguarding the society  from
evil spirits.
Several other visual forms were for purely entertainment purposes.Many were
used at the time of celebrations like harvest,marriage etc.
Singing folk songs were a tradition and custom  while doing works in the agricultural fields.The songs sung during sowing seeds were different from the songs sung during harvesting.
Margam Kali
When agriculture was the main occupation of the people of Kerala the present
month 'Karkadakom'(July-August) was a problem causing  month for farmers and a large sector of people.Epidemics were common during this time of the year and many  people would not be  having enough  money with them in this month.Next month Chingam is harvest period and therefore Aug-Sept would be celebration month.
The folklore art forms performed in olden days during 'Karkadakom' were mainly to remove evil spirits.(Mariyattam,Kalanattam,Vedanattam etc).In the month of Chingam "Oneswaran,Kummatty,Pulikali,Thumbi Thullal,Thiruvathira Kali,Kummi Kali,Kala Vela,Kathir Vela " etc are all performed and   boat races
including Snake Boat races etc are also held as part of the celebrations.From the month of Chingam festivities of different varieties  related to Temple,Church and Mosques as well as other types of celebrations are also common.
Natural materials are largely used for the folklore artistic forms.The easily available materials  such as Paddy,Rice, Coconut flower bunch,Arecanut flower bunch,Areca nut,Betal leaves ,Coconut,Golden laced red colour and white colour   silk clothes,arecanut tree sheaths,Rice powder, turmeric powder, turmeric powder mixed with lime,  powder of different colour natural stones ,charcoal powder,natural glue collected from certain type of trees etc are all necessary for folklore 
visual forms.
For classical art forms like Kathakali, colourful dress is used and colourful ornaments are also worn  on several parts of the body such as neck,ears,hands,shoulder,waist, nose etc..Mostly they wears ornamented headgears (Crown) also.
The ancient folklore variety such as 'Padayani Kolam', they   employs natural materials such
as arecanut sheaths,natural colours,tender coconut leaves etc.They make 
effigies with the arecanut tree sheaths artistically painted and tied on a bamboo frame.Headgears are all made with natural materials.The face of the
artiste's will be also covered with appropriate effigy.
Sarpam Thullal

The traditional musical instruments used in Kerala for the folklore art forms   are mainly "Maddalam,Thakil, Thoppi maddalam,Chenda,Murichenda,Kuzhal,Kudam,Veena,
Thappu,Udukku,Nanthuni,Chengila,Para,Thudi etc.
The ritualistic art forms are performed as per the rules and regulations which are followed exactly from generations to generations.The songs sung for these art forms are  all transformed from one generation to the next.
Some varieties of the folk art forms are performed by women but majority are
done by men only.Several  art form  needs special talents and physical training
like 'Kalari Payattu' for performing them.The names of some folklore visual
art forms are as follows:-
" Kaliyattam,  Karineeliyattam,   Karadiyattam,   Mayilattam,  Bhadrakaliyattam,  Theyyattam,  Neeliyattam,  Kurathiyattam

Tholpava koothu,  Kaniyan Koothu,  Malankoothu,  Ayyappan Koothu,  Pavakoothu,
Karadikali,  Ochira kali, Ivar kali,Uriyadi Kali, Ezhamuthi kali,  Kambadi kali,

Kalamezhuthi pattu,  Sarpam pattu,  Pana pattu,  Pulluvan pattu,  kalam pattu,

Kaliyoottu, Mudiyattam,  Garudan Thookkam,  Kuthiyottam,  Mayilpeeli Thookkam, Mudiyettu,

Kummatti kali,  Kummi Kali,  kai kotti kali,  kol kali,  Thiruvathira Kali,
Chuvadu kali,Kaala Kali,Charadupinni Kali, Seetha Kali, Paricha Kali, Visari Kali, Parichamuttu Kali,  Pavakathakali,  Sangha Kali,

Thumbi Thullal,  Kolam Thullal,  Theyyam,  Thira,  Adavi Thullal,  Amman Thullal,  Komaram Thullal,  Garudan Thullal,

Karaka Nritham, Thidampu Nritham,  Arjuna Nritham,  Garuda Nritham, Pambatty Nritham,

Kakkarassi Nadakam, Siva Nadakam,  Sakthi Nadakam, Chavittu Nadakam,

Poorakkali,  Theeyattu,  Arabana Muttu,  Daff Muttu,  Margam Kali,  Oppana etc.

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