Tuesday, November 13, 2012


In Kerala Theyyam is usually enacted by the People of Community varieties such as 
Velar,Munnoottanmar,Anjoottanmar,Chingathan,Mavilar,Koppalar,Pulayar etc.
There is a community known as 'Vannanmar' in Northern Kerala who are traditional physicians also.These people perform Theyyams of several types such as "Thayi Paradevatha, Vettakkoru Makan,Vaira Jathan, Kshetra Palan, Muchilottu Bhagavathy, Kannangattu Bhagavathy,Angakulangara Bhagavathy,Padakkethi Bhagavathy,Arya Poomkanny,Kakkara Bhagavathy, Makka Bhagavathy,Bali,Cheralathu Bhagavathy etc".
The ' Malayar' Community of Northern Kerala who are experts in using percussion instruments performs different types of Theyyams."Kuttichathan,Pottan, Gulikan, Bhairavan,Raktheswari,Raktha Chamundi,Madayil Chamundi,Vishnu Murthy,Kanta Karnan, Panchuruli,Moovalam KuzhiChamundi," etc are performed by them.
'Velar' are the community who mainly performs 'Kundora Chamundi' Theyyam.
Panchuruli,Dhooma Bhagavathy,Pulli Kurathi,Kunjar Kurathi,Malamkurathi,Chudala Bhadra Kali, Bappiriyan,Kala Chamundi,Gulikan,Pulli Chamundi, Padinjare Chamundi" etc are also enacted by them.
Another community who performs Theyyattam are 'Mavilar'.Vishnu Murthi,Chamundi,Kurathi,Gulikan,Kaappalathi,Pethalan,Kaattu madantha,Mangala Chamundy,Manthra Murthy,Vannathy Bhagavathy,Veera Bhadran,Parali Amma" etc are the important Theyyams performed by them.
'Chingathanmar' community enacts Theyyam such as " Veera Chamundi, Thayi Paradevatha,Puthiya Bhagavathy,Kammiyamma,Nagakanny" etc.
Community members of "Anjoottan' and 'Munnootan' also enacts Theyyam and 
"Thiruvarkattu Bhagavathy,Puthiya Bhagavathy,Poo Maruthan,Thulu Veeran" etc are performed by them.
'Koppalar' community of Kasaragod District performs Theyyam varieties like 
"Panchuruli,Anna panchuruli,Padinjare Chamundi,Dhooma Bhagavathy,Gulikan" etc.
'Pulayar' community are also experts in enacting Theyyam and they usually performs "Pulimaranja Gurunathan,Maruthiyodan Kurikkal,Pollalan Kurikkal,Vattyan Polla,Bhairavan,Karinchamundi,Vishnumurthy,Kuttichathan,
Pulikkandan," etc.

Thira is some what the same as Theyyam in looks, and manifestation.The deities are mostly  of the same names as of Theyyams and there is slight difference in make-up,costumes,effigies etc.It is existing in certain parts of Kannur District like 'Thalassery' and in some parts of Malappuram District.
The word Theyyam means 'God' and the meaning of Thira is 'God's Vision'.
The small scale performance on the eve of  main performance day of Theyyam is known as 'Thottam' and such a performance in Thira is known as 'Vellattu'.
Some varieties of Thira are " Veera Bhadran,Gulikan,Vasuri Mala,Chorakalathil Bhagavathy, Pookkutty, Vaira Jathan,Parakutty, Kuttichathan, Ilavilli,Poovilli,
Pottan,Gandharvan, Theethara Bhagavathy, Puli Chamundi,Sree Porkali,Bhadra Kali, Kodum Kali, Naga Kali, Naga Bhagavathy,Kanta Karnan,Vishnu Murthy" etc.
The songs used for Theyyam and Thira are known as 'Thottam Pattukal'.These ancient songs are mostly descriptions which narrate the shape and qualities of
the deities and praises them.The  requisites  of the devotee for their  blessings and mercy are  certainly a part of those songs.From some of those songs the social, economic and cultural image of the past is  revealed to us.The social injustice and cruelty which happened in those days may go to one's heart and wet the eyes.Some 
descriptions are so sweet and  lovely that it will for sure  enrapture the listeners.

1 comment:

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