Saturday, April 6, 2013

KATHAKALI - ( PART - 2 )

In Kathakali the make-up and costumes have much importance and significance.  It is unique in appearance,style and very attractive.In the light of the oil lamp lighted on the stage and from the light of other sources too, the trinkets and ornaments glitters and shines brightly enhancing the beauty of the characters.
Most of the characters wear headgears made from a particular type of wood.The making of the headgears is painstaking hand carving work by expert craftsmen and such kind of care is taken in the creation of ornaments and costumes also.
The make-up of the artists is also a time consuming art work done by experts.Mostly natural colours are used for make-up.The make up process is known as 'Chutty' and  different types of 'chutty' are  done for different type of characters.The main types of chutty are 'Pacha,Kathy,Thady,Kari,Minukku' etc and there are sub divisions also.
The noble heroic  'Satwik' characters have 'Pacha' style 'chutty' and characters like 'Pandavas,Krishna,Karna,Indra,SriRam etc are given this which has green colour on face.Green colour is changed to saffron for 'Balarama,Lord Shiva,Agni Deva, etc and known as 'Pazhuppu'.
Heroic characters with a slight villainous form  and impudent types (Thamo Guna) are represented by 'Kathy' style and  characters like 'Keechaka,Ravana,Duryodhana' etc falls in this category.
'Thady' category has variations such as 'Chuvanna Thady' , 'Vella Thady' 'Karutha Thady' etc.
Extremely evil, villainous characters like 'Dussasanan' 'Jarasandhan' etc have 'Chuvanna Thadi' (Red beard)make-up.
'Hanuman'  like characters  will be given 'Vella Thady' (White beard) make-up.


'Kali' in Nalacharitha is  given 'Karutha Thady'(Black Beard) make-up.
For 'Chuvanna Thadi' larger head gears are used which help boost their fierce form.
'Minukku' does not have head gears and not much make-up is needed which are employed for Brahmin characters, females,  sages and messenger characters are given this type of make-up.
Rude characters like 'Nishadas' will be given 'Kari' type of 'Chutty' which emphasis black colour and a typical different type of  head gear will be worn.
Most of the characters have a special skirt and the hip part will be set high up using artificial materials which will give a majestic look.
At sunset a percussion concert will be performed with the instruments 'Chenda,Maddalam,Chengila and Ilathalam' to proclaim that there will be 'Kathakali' on that stage on that day.Usually the play used  to start at 9 pm
and continued till dawn.
At around 8'O clock the 'Kalivilakku' (big oil lamp) will be lighted.Afterwards 'Arangukeli' which is a percussion concert will be  held .Then a curtain will be held aloft by two men and a character will dance behind it which is known as' Thodayam' followed by 'Vandana Slokam(prayer) and then  one or two  characters come on stage and dances  in a ritual known as 'Purappad' will be performed.Then there is 'Melappadam' when all the percussion artists will perform to show their skill and talent including the singers.Then only the original play starts.
The performing artists will dance according to the playback songs with appropriate hand gestures and body movements.'Lasya Bhava' dance is rare in Kathakali, but 'Thandava style' is employed mostly.When they dance to the lyrics it is with lesser speed and known as 'Cholliyattam'.After the stanza the performer will express their feelings by dancing vigorously and improvisations can be done for it according to their skill and expertise.This is known as 'Elakiyattam'.Those who are familiar with the hand gestures of 'Natya Sastra' can enjoy Kathakali very well.Now-a-days the upcoming story of the scenes are explained to the audience.
The drum which is known as Chenda has very much importance in Kathakali.




The drummer has to play it precisely well with much expertise producing minute sounds to thunderstorms on it as per the requirements.All the categories of Kathakali including  make-up artists,percussion artists,performing artists,singers etc 
are all having minimum five or six years of vigorous training.From 1970 females can also get trained as Kathakali performing artists.
Now-a-days kathakali is not usually  performed till dawn.Usually one story is played per day at present which will take only four or five hours and in many places the play starts at 7 PM and ends around mid night.Stories from Hindu mythology were traditionally used but recently other type of stories such as 'Magdalana Mariyam' etc  are also tried experimentally.
Some famous Kathakali stories are "Nalacharitham(4Parts-1st Day,2nd day,3rd day,4th day),Duryodhana Vadham,Nizhal Kuthu,Kalyana Sougandhikam,Uthara Swayamvaram,Rukmini Swayamvaram,Nivatha Kavacha Kalakeya Vadham,Thorana Yudham,Bali Vijayam,Bali Vadham,Rugmangada


 

Charitham,Kiratham,Bana Yudham,Daksha Yagam" etc.There are more than 250 Kathakali plays out of which  50 are played mostly.
Travancore King 'Dharma Rajah" (1758-98) gave much encouragement for the propaganda of Kathakali.
Institutions like 'Mathur Kaliyogam of Alapuzha,Valiakottaram Kaliyogam of Trivandrum,Thakazy Kaliyogam,Kurichi Kathaskali yogam,Keerikkad Thoppil Kathakali yogam,Parassinikadavu Muthappan Kathakali yogam,Kottakal P.S.V.Natya Sangham' etc helped a lot for this art form
Legends like Thottam Sankaran Namboothiri,Guru Kunchukurup,Pattikkamthodi Ravunni Menon,Vechoor Raman Pillai,Mathur Kunjupillai Panicker etc 
and    'Guru Chengannur Raman Pillai,Mangulam Vishnu Nampoothiri,Champakkulam Pachupillai' etc  and later 'Kalamandalam Krishnan Nair, Kalamandalam Ramankutty Nair' etc were glittering stars in this field.
                                  When 'Kalamandalam' was started in 1930 at Shornur it became a prestigious Institute which used to train experts in all aspects of Kathakali art form.Some other main Institutes in Kerala for Kathakali art includes 'P.S.V. Natya Sangham Kottakal,Sadanam Academy Ottappalam,Unnai Varier Kalanilayam Irinjalikkuda,RLV School,Tripunithura,Margi Thiruvanthapuram,Kalabharathi Kollam etc.
There are so many well trained experts in all aspects of Kathakali at present.



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